SCHUMPETERIAN ‘GREAT GAP’ THESIS AND MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC ECONOMIC THOUGHT: INTERLINK BETWEEN GREEKS, MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARS AND EUROPEAN SCHOLASTICS

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Abstract


Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950) dalam bukunya History of Economic Analysis (1954)
memperkenalkan sebuah tesis ‘great gap’ dengan mengatakan bahwa analisis ekonomi hanya
mulai dari Yunani dan tidak berkembang lagi sampai kemunculan ilmuan Skolastik Eropa di
tangan St Thomas Aquinas. Namun kenyataannya, ‘great gap’ Schumpeter ini justru terjadi pada
masa kejayaan Islam, yaitu ketika sejumlah sarjana dan ilmuan Muslim memberikan kontribusi
signifikan dalam berbagai jenis penemuan dan keilmuan termasuk dalam bidang ekonomi. Isi
dari ilmu ekonomi kontemporer saat ini dapat dilacak kesamaannya dengan karya ilmuan Arab
abad pertengahan seperti Abu Yûsuf (731-798), Al Farabi (873-950), Ibnu Sina (980-1037), Al-
Ghazalî (1058-1111), Ibnu Taimiyah (1263-1328), dan Ibnu Khaldûm (1364-1442). Terdapat
keterhubungan antara karya intelektual Yunani, ilmuan Muslim abad pertengahan dan Ilmuan
skolastik. Ilmuan Arab sendiri ‘distimulasi’ oleh ilmuan Yunani yang selanjutnya dikembangkan
sesuai dengan kerangka Islam dan banyak dari karya mereka memiliki kemiripan dengan tulisan
Skolastik. Penelitian ini melakukan penolakan secara akademik atas tesis Shumpeter tentang
‘great gap’ dengan menunjukkan kontribusi ilmuan Muslim dalam pemikiran ekonomi.
Penelitian ini juga membahas beberapa isu tentang Islamisasi ilmu ekonomi kontemporer.

Keywords


great gap, medieval Arab-Islamic scholastics, Islamization of Economics, Islamic worldview.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24260/almaslahah.v13i1.815

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