KRITERIA SUMBER FORMIL DAN MATERIL HUKUM ISLAM DI INDONESIA

Rusdi Sulaiman

Abstract


This study aims to determine the criteria for formal and material sources of Islamic law in Indonesia as represented in the fatwas of Muhammadiyah, NU and MUI. The method used is content analysis which is descriptive-evaluative. With its descriptive nature, content analysis is expected to describe the formal and material sources of Islamic law in Indonesia as they are, objective and in-depth. With its evaluative nature, this analysis is expected to present a critical interpretation of the criteria for formal and material sources of Islamic law in Indonesia as issued by Muhammadiyah, NU and MUI's fatwa. This study concludes that the criteria for sources of Islamic law, both formal and material, in Muhammadiyah fatwas are the Koran, hadith or sunnah maqbūlah (acceptable), and a mind that is in line with textual references or stands alone as long as it does not conflict with the Koran and maqbūlah sunnah. These intellect are sometimes collective, meaning that they are carried out together (collective ijtihad). These thoughts can be judged from a formal perspective, namely following the agreed procedures or methods of interpretation of Islamic law, or judged materially by following, among others, ‘urf qānūni (positive law), experts although not legal experts, and not internal Muhammadiyah scholars. These minds are professional minds (according to the problem) and public minds (according to context). All of this is demonstrated by Muhammadiyah fatwas in the fields of business, worship and marriage. The criteria for the source of Islamic law, both formal and material, in the NU fatwas are the Koran, hadith, and a mind that is in line with the maqāshid sharī'ah (shari'at objectives). NU, like Muhammadiyah, accepts positive law as a criterion for Islamic law, both formal and material. All of this is demonstrated by the NU fatwas on business, worship and marriage. The criteria for sources of Islamic law, both formal and material, in the MUI fatwas are the Koran, hadiths, and a mind that is in harmony with the public, public and nationality, sadd al-dzarī'ah ("preventive action"). MUI, like Muhammadiyah and NU, accepts positive law as the criterion for "discovery" of Islamic law (fatwa). All of this is shown by the MUI fatwas in the fields of economy, worship and marriage.

Keywords


Formal Law, Material Law, Islamic Law, Fatwa

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24260/al-maslahah.v16i1.1500

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