Social Capital and Civic Engagement in Times Of Tension: An Evidence from Interethnic Relation Developed in Stella Maris Credit Union Pontianak, West Kalimantan

Alanuari Alanuari, Mohammad Iqbal Ahnaf

Abstract

This paper begins by questioning the sustainability of civic engagement with the notion of ‘social capital’ as the key concept of Peace and Conflict Studies. The main question is: to what extent does socio-political tension affect forms of civic engagement? This paper examines interethnic relations (Dayak, Malay, Chinese, and Javanese) developed in the Stella Maris Credit Union (SMCU) in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia under the context of ethnic tension. SMCU is a microfinance association where people with various backgrounds (religion, race, and ethnicity) interact in an economic community, sharing benefits and values. In the beginning, SMCU was initiated as an economic program of Stella Maris Catholic Church in North Pontianak. This church did not only serve the church members, but also for all ethnicities and religions through Pontianak. As a site drastically impacted by ethnic conflict in the post-Suharto era, Pontianak recently has been growing as a city of ethnic diversity. However, the recent rise of ethnic tension has contested this growing multiethnic coexistence. It is important to see the strength of civic engagement in responding to issues of conflict in a multiethnic society. This study explores SMCU members and their personal experiences, wondering whether the tension may or may not affect the forms of civic engagement. It argues civic engagement can sustain under the moment of socio-political tension. Developing economy and peace education are the main reasons for interethnic relations among SMCU members. Moreover, although there are treats for the plural society, experiencing diversity in the form of associational and neighborhood relations contributes to social coexistence. This study finds that forms of civic engagement among the members shape expressions and attitudes of resilience in facing social tension.

Keywords

civic engagement; tension; interethnic relation; credit union; Pontianak

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adler, R. P., & Goggin, J. (2005). What do we mean by “civic engagement”? Journal of transformative education, 3(3), 236-253.

Ahnaf, M. I., Maarif, S., Asyhari-Afwan, B., & Afdillah, M. (2017). Politik Lokal Dan Konflik Keagamaan.

Alqadrie, S. I. (2002). Pola Pertikaian Etnis Di Kalimantan Barat dan Faktor-faktor Sosial, Budaya, Ekonomi dan Politik yang Mempengaruhinya. In Percik, Seminar Internasional. Dinamika Politik Lokal di Indonesia (pp. 9-12).

Aragon, L. V. (2001). Communal violence in Poso, Central Sulawesi: where people eat fish and fish eat people. Indonesia, (72), 45-79.

Aspinall, E. (2011). Democratization and ethnic politics in Indonesia: Nine theses. Journal of East Asian Studies, 11(2), 289-319.

Asriati, N., & Bahari, Y. (2010). Pengendalian Sosial Berbasis Modal Sosial Lokal pada Masyarakat di Kalimantan Barat. MIMBAR, Jurnal Sosial dan Pembangunan, 26(2), 147-158.

Bartels, D. (1977). Guarding the Invisible Mountain: Intervillage Alliances, Religious Syncretism, and Ethnic Identity Ambonese Christians and Moslems in the Moluccas (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University).

Bertrand, J. (2004). Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge University Press.

Bubandt, N. (2009). From the enemy's point of view: violence, empathy, and the ethnography of fakes. Cultural Anthropology, 24(3), 553-588.

Davidson, J. S., & Kammen, D. (2002). Indonesia's unknown war and the lineages of violence in West Kalimantan. Indonesia, (73), 53-87.

De Jonge, H., & Nooteboom, G. (2006). Why the Madurese? Ethnic Conflicts in West and East Kalimantan Compared. Asian Journal of Social Science, 34(3), 456-474.

Diamond, L. J. (1994). Toward democratic consolidation. Journal of democracy, 5(3), 4-17.

Ernas, S. (2016). Architecture of Peace in Ambon: Reading Dynamics of Peace After Ten Years of Conflict. Al-Albab, 5(2), 219 - 236. doi:https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v5i2.504

Fukuyama, F. (2001). Social capital, civil society, and development. Third world quarterly, 22(1), 7-20.

Hartriani, J. (2014). Politik Etnis pada Masa Pemerintahan Gubernur Cornelis di Kalimantan Barat Tahun 2007 hingga 2013. Ringkasan Skripsi. Depok: Universitas Indonesia.

Horowitz, (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. California: University of California Press.

Koodoh, E., Ahimsa Putra, H., & Setiadi, S. (2018). The Involvement of Religious Leaders in Conflict Resolution within Tolaki People of Konawe District. Al-Albab, 7(1), 75-90. doi:https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v7i1.965

Kristianus, K. (2017). Nasionalisme Etnik Di Kalimantan Barat. Masyarakat Indonesia, 37(2), 147-176.

McGibbon, R. (2004). Plural society in peril: migration, economic change, and the Papua conflict.

Mujiburrahman, M., Alfisyah, A., & Ahmad, S. (2011). Badingsanak Banjar-Dayak Identitas Agama Dan Ekonomi Etnisitas Di Kalimantan Selatan.

Paffenholz, T., & Spurk, C. (2006). Civil society, civic engagement, and peacebuilding. Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, 36, 10-55.

Prasojo, Z. H. (2011). Indigenous Community Identity Within Muslim Societies in Indonesia: A Study of Katab Kebahan Dayak in West Borneo. Journal of Islamic Studies, Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 50–65, https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/etq068

-------. (2017). Social Change and the Contributions of the Tionghoa, Dayak, and Melayu (Tidayu) in West Kalimantan. In Borneo Studies in History, Society and Culture (pp. 427-442). Springer, Singapore.

---------. (2017a). Religious and Cultural Existences Within the Communities of Upper Kapuas Riverside of West Kalimantan. Al-Albab, 6(2), 197 - 214. doi:https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v6i2.931

Putnam, R. (1993). The prosperous community: Social capital and public life. The American Prospect, 13(Spring), Vol. 4. Available online: http://www. prospect. org/print/vol/13 (accessed 7 April 2003).

Rumahuru, Y. (2016). Socio-Religious Movement of Religious Affiliated Student Organizations After Social Conflict in Ambon. Al-Albab, 5(2), 251 - 264. doi:https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v5i2.505

Rumahuru, Y. Z., & Abdullah, I. (2012). Islam Syariah Dan Islam Adat (Konstruksi Identitas Keagamaan Dan Perubahan Sosial Di Kalangan Komunitas Muslim Hatuhaha Di Negeri Pelauw) (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Gadjah Mada).

Schneider, J. A. (2008). Social capital, civic engagement, and trust. Anthropologica, 50(2), 425-428.

Sholeh, B. (2013). The Dynamics of Muslim and Christian Relations in Ambon, Eastern Indonesia. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(3), 303-311.

Tadjoeddin, M. Z. (2004). Civil society engagement and communal violence: reflections of various hypotheses in the context of Indonesia.

Van Klinken, G. (2007). Communal violence and democratization in Indonesia: Small town wars: Routledge.

Varshney, A. (2002). Ethnic conflict and civic life: Hindus and Muslims in India. Yale University Press.

Readings from Website:

www.understandingconflict.org

https://www.puskopditbkcukalimantan.org/cuprimer_detail/2

http://lontar.ui.ac.id/naskahringkas/2016-06/S55870-Jeany%20Hartriani

www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/03/19/fpi-dayak-pontianak-calm-after-being-hit-tension/

https://news.detik.com/berita/3506946/sempat-ada-insiden-gawai-dayak-di-pontianak-berlangsung-damai

http://bangka.tribunnews.com/2017/05/20/aksi-bela-ulama-205-di-pontianak-sempat-diwarnai-ketegangan

https://www.pontianakpost.co.id/para-tokoh-sepakat-damai

https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2018/01/16/06080591/kalbar-dan-papua-paling-rawan-konflik-di-pilkada-2018-polri-akan-kuatkan

http://daerah.sindonews.com/read/1206694/174/ribuan-orang-ikut-aksi-bela-ulama-di-pontianak-1495270354

www.nasional.tempo.co/read/390613/kronologi-ricuh-spanduk-anti-fpi-di-pontianak/

http://www.bbc.com/indonesia/amp/indonesia-39992156

http://crcs.ugm.ac.id/news/9712/perang-posisi-dalam-gerakan-bela-islam.html

https://kalbar.kpu.go.id/berita/pengumuman-penetapan-calon-terpilih-pilgub-kalbar-2018

https://populicenter.org/upaya-dominasi-orang-dayak-politik-identitas-dalam-dinamika-politik-lokal-di-kalimantan-barat/

https://majalah.tempo.co/read/nasional/94089/tali-kepala-merah-kembali-dikenakan?

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 184 PDF views: 87