Religious Consistency and Commitment to Local Tradition Within the Bawakareng Community in Indonesia’s South Sulawesi

Mustaqim Pabbajah

Abstract

Islam and local traditions have been struggling dynamically as seen in the reality of the social and religious life in the Indonesian context. This study aims to reaffirm the relationship between religion and local traditions by observing the consistency of South Sulawesi’s Bawakaraeng community in practicing both Islam and local traditions. This work is based on data collected through observation, interviews, and literature studies with a qualitative descriptive analysis approach. The results of this study show three findings. First, the Bawakaraeng community, represented by some people of Buginese and Macassarese ethnic groups, still believes that a local mountain is the center of a ritual to get closer to the creator. Second, the community has not only a strong consistency in the practice of Islamic teachings, but also a high commitment to maintaining local traditions, as practiced by Bawakaraeng community members. Third, religious consistency and a commitment to local traditions are practiced simultaneously through worshiping rituals such as prayers, remembrances, alms, and the pilgrimage activities (qurban-scarification) and tawaf). Thus, the Islamic spirits are being practiced consistently and continuously within the community’s local context. This study suggests further undiscovered research on local communities using a contextual approach.

Keywords

Religious Consistency; Commitment; Local Tradition; Bawakaraeng

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abdullah, I., Jubba, H., Pabbajah, M., Sari, I. P., Zuhri, S., & Ernas, S. (2019). From selfism to indifferentism: challenges facing Indonesian society and culture, 2015–2045. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 8(3), 102–112. https://doi.org/10.36941/ajis-2019-0009

Abu Hamid, 2005. Syekh Yusuf Seorang Ulama, Sufi dan Pejuang. Jakarta : Yayasan Obor Indonesia

Adam, U. K. (2019). Sesajen sebagai Nilai hidup bermasyarakat di Kampung Cipicung Girang Kota Bandung. IJSED: Indonesian Journal of Sociology, Education, and Development, 1, 24–31.

Adnan, S. (2018). Bissu Yang Enggan Membisu Proses Encountering Islam dan Kebugisan. Al-Qalam, 15(2), 401. https://doi.org/10.31969/alq.v15i2.502

Ahmad, A. K. (2016). Haji Di Bontonompo Kabupaten Gowa Tinjauan Sosial EkonoMI. Al-Qalam, 19(2), 165. https://doi.org/10.31969/alq.v19i2.153

Al-Amri, L., & Haramain, M. (2017). Akulturasi Islam Dalam Budaya Lokal. KURIOSITAS: Media Komunikasi Sosial Dan Keagamaan, 10(2), 87–100. https://doi.org/10.35905/kur.v10i2.594

Aminullah, A. (2017). Sinkretisme Agama dan Budaya dalam Tradisi Sesajen di Desa Prenduan. Dirosat : Journal of Islamic Studies, 2(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.28944/dirosat.v2i1.64

Andaya, L. Y. (2019). The Bissu: In Gender in Focus (pp. 64–87). https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvddzn5f.5

Arifai, A. (2018). Akulturasi Islam Dan Budaya Lokal. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Arifin, M., Abdullah, I., & Ratnawati, A. T. (2019). Contestation between Puritan Islam and Kejawen in the Urban Yogyakarta of Indonesia. Al-Albab, 8(2), 193–210. https://doi.org/10.24260/ALALBAB.V8I2.1460

Aziza, A. (2017). Relasi Agama dan Budaya. ALHADHARAH. https://doi.org/10.18592/alhadharah.v15i30.1204

Capistrán, H. G. (2019). The sacred mountain. Aspects of the legitimation of power in the maya classic. Estudios de Cultura Maya, 53, 139–172.

Dewsbury, J. D., & Cloke Paul, P. (2009). Spiritual landscapes: Existence, performance and immanence. Social and Cultural Geography, 10(6), 695–711. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649360903068118

Duda, T. (2017). Sacral heritage in cultural and geographical trans-boundary space of Europe. 9th Annual International Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Conference.

Fahrurrozi. (2015). Ekspresi keberagamaan masyarakat Islam Indonesia: Mozaik multikulturalisme Indonesia. TOLERANSI: Media Ilmiah Komunikasi Umat Beragama, 7(1), 15–34.

Farid, R. (2019). Dana Talangan Haji; Problem atau Solusi Jitu? (Studi Evaluasi Kebijakan Penyelenggaraan Ibadah Haji). Palita: Journal of Social Religion Research, 4(2), 107–120. https://doi.org/10.24256/pal.v4i2.758

Hamdani Harahap, R., & Humaizi, H. (2018). Local wisdom in preservation of Lake Toba ecosystems (study on Toba Lake community in the Village of Silalahi I, Sub District of Silahisabungan, Dairi Regency, North Sumatera Province). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 126(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012122

Harahap, S. M. (2015). Islam Dan Budaya Lokal Studi terhadap Pemahaman, Keyakinan, dan Praktik Keberagamaan Masyarakat Batak Angkola di Padangsidimpuan Perspektif Antropologi. TOLERANSI: Media Komunikasi Umat Bergama, 7(2), 154–176.

Hartney, C., & Tower, D. J. (2016). Indigenous Religion: Its Validity and Problematics. In Religious Categories and the Construction of the Indigenous (pp. 1–7). https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004328983_002

Haryanto, J. T. (2015). Relasi Agama Dan Budaya Dalam Hubungan Intern Umat Islam. SMART. https://doi.org/10.18784/smart.v1i1.228

Hasan, H. (2016). Islam Dan Budaya Banjar di Kalimantan Selatan. ITTIHAD, 14(25). https://doi.org/10.18592/ittihad.v14i25.865

Hasan, H., & Nur, H. (2019). Patuntung Sebagai Kepercayaan Masyarakat Kajang Dalam (Ilalang Embayya) Di Kabupaten Bulukumba. Phinisi Integration Review, 2(2), 185. https://doi.org/10.26858/pir.v2i2.9981

Idris, S. (2017). Konstruksi Ritual Ibadah Haji Pada Masyarakat Sekitar Gunung Bawakaraeng Kab. Gowa. Al-Qalam, 23(2). https://doi.org/10.31969/alq.v23i2.427

Iman, A. N., Mulyana, D., Pratama, A. G., & Novianti, E. (2018). A study of transvestites: The self-presentation of bissu. Journal of Social Sciences Research, Specialissue2, 70–75. https://doi.org/10.32861/jssr.spi2.70.75

Indiyanto, A., & Kuswanjono, A. (2012). Agama, Budaya, dan Bencana: Kajian Integratif Ilmu Agama dan Budaya. Yogyakarta: Mizan & ICRS.

Jubba, H. (2016). Dinamika Hubungan Islam dan Agama Lokal di Indonesia: Pengalaman Towani Tolotang di Sulawesi Selatan. Wawasan: Jurnal Ilmiah Agama Dan Sosial Budaya. https://doi.org/10.15575/jw.v1i2.744

Jubba, H., Abdullah, I., Pabbajah, M., Iribaram, S., Prasojo, Z. H., & Qodir, Z. (2020). The display of religious symbols in public space: The contestation of muslim and christian identities in jayapura, Papua. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 8(1), 642–650. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2020.8177

Jubba, H., Pabbajah, M., H Prasodjo, Z., & Qodir, Z. (2019). The Future Relations between the Majority and Minority Religious Groups, Viewed from Indonesian Contemporary Perspective: A Case Study of the Coexistence of Muslims and the Towani Tolotang in Amparita, South Sulawesi. International Journal of Islamic Thought, 16(1), 13–23. https://doi.org/10.24035/ijit.16.2019.002

Jubba, H., Rustan, A. S., & Juhansar, J. (2018). Kompromi Islam dan Adat pada Praktik Keagamaan Muslim Bugis di Sulawesi Selatan. JSW: Jurnal Sosiologi Walisongo. https://doi.org/10.21580/jsw.2018.2.2.2865

Khodijah, K. (2018). Agama Dan Budaya Malu Sebagai Kontrol Sosial Terhadap Perilaku Koruptif. Sosial Budaya, 15(2), 121. https://doi.org/10.24014/sb.v15i2.7606

Khusnul Ashar, S. U. B. M. K. (2012). Memaknai Perilaku Muslim Dalam Bersedekah (Studi Fenomenologi Pengalaman Muzakki LAGZIS Sabilit Taqwa Bululawang). IQTISHODUNA. https://doi.org/10.18860/iq.v0i0.1769

Lawwarani, M. A. A., & Alizah, N. (2018). Maccera Siwanua: Tradisi Menyucikan Kampung Dan Pesta Rakyat Di Desa Alitta, Kecamatan Matiro Bulu Kabupaten Pinrang. Walasuji : Jurnal Sejarah Dan Budaya, 9(1), 225–235. https://doi.org/10.36869/wjsb.v9i1.33

Leonard, L. (2015). Kajian Peran Konsistensi Diri Terhadap Prestasi Belajar Matematika. Formatif: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan MIPA, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.30998/formatif.v3i2.116

Lichterman, P. (2008). Religion and the construction of civic identity. American Sociological Review, 73(1), 83–104. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240807300105

Luthfi, K. M. (2016). Islam Nusantara: Relasi Islam dan Budaya Lokal. SHAHIH : Journal of Islamicate Multidisciplinary. https://doi.org/10.22515/shahih.v1i1.53

Maarif, S. (2014). Being a muslim in animistic ways. Al-Jami’ah. https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2014.521.149-174

Madzhab, P. P., Syariah, F., Hukum, D. A. N., Islam, U., & Syarif, N. (2019). Upacara Sedekah Laut Perspektif. Syariah Dan Hukum, 11(1), 111–124.

Marlina, E., Isran Bidin, Zul Azmi, Adriyanti Agustina Putri, & Rama Gita Suci. (2019). Tinjauan Sosial Ekonomi dan Budaya Ibadah Qurban. Jurnal Pengabdian UntukMu NegeRI, 3(2), 243–247. https://doi.org/10.37859/jpumri.v3i2.1564

Masduki, M. (2019). Islam And Cultural Plurality Of Indonesia. TOLERANSI: Media Ilmiah Komunikasi Umat Beragama, 10(2), 96. https://doi.org/10.24014/trs.v10i2.7079

McCafferty, G. G. (2018). Mountain of heaven, mountain of earth: The great pyramid of cholula as sacred landscape. In Landscape and Power in Ancient Mesoamerica (pp. 279–314). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429499418

MPdH, W. (2019). Nilai-Nilai Dalam Ritual Basarah. Dharma Duta, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.33363/dd.v16i2.200

Mu, Y., Nepal, S. K., & Lai, P. H. (2019). Tourism and sacred landscape in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal. Tourism Geographies, 21(3), 442–459. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2018.1558454

Muallifin, M. F. (2019). Islam Dan Budaya Lokal (Pluralisme Agama dan Budaya Di Indonesia). Abdau: Jurnal Pendidikan Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, 2(1), 61–75. https://doi.org/10.36768/abdau.v2i1.25

Muhajir, M., & Ahmad Gani, A. (2019). The Values of Maccera Tappareng Ceremony In Buginese Society at Wajo Regency (Local Culture Analysis). SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3349531

Muqoyyidin, A. W. (2013). Dialektika Islam Dan Budaya Lokal Jawa Andik. Ibda, Jurnal Kebudayaan Islam.

Mustaghfiroh, Hikmatul. Mustaqim, M. (2014). Spirituality Analysis of Blessing Seekers (Study of the Motivation of Pilgrims in the Tomb of Sunan Kalijaga Kadilangu Demak). Jurnal Penelitian, 8(1), 143–160.

Mustamin, K. (2017). Makna Simbolis dalam Tradisi Maccera’ Tappareng di Danau Tempe Kabupaten Wajo. Al-Ulum, 16(1), 246. https://doi.org/10.30603/au.v16i1.28

Nuri, M. (2014). Pragmatisme Penyelenggaraan Ibadah Haji Di Indonesia. SALAM: Jurnal Sosial Dan Budaya Syar-I, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.15408/sjsbs.v1i1.1532

Nuttin, J. (2014). Motivation. In Experimental Psychology Its Scope and Method: V Motivation, Emotion and Personality (pp. 1–101). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315756554-7

Pabbajah. M. (2012). Haji Bawakaraeng: The Resistence of Local Society in South Sulawesi. JICZA Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia, 1. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24252/jicsa.v1i1.718

Pabbajah, M., Abdullah, I., Juhansar, & Jubba, H. (2019). Contested Socioreligious Reality: An-Nadzir, a Non-mainstream Islamic Movement in Indonesia. The International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society. https://doi.org/10.18848/2154-8633/cgp/v09i02/71-78

Palippui, I. (2016). Syekh Yusuf Dan (Hasrat) Perjalanan Haji Ke Puncak Bawa Karaeng. Jurnal Masyarakat Dan Budaya. https://doi.org/10.14203/JMB.V18I2.409

Pelras, C. (1993). Religion, Tradition, and the Dynamics of Islamization in South Sulawesi. Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.2307/3351245

Petrican, R., & Burris, C. T. (2012). Am i the stone? Overattribution of agency and religious orientation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(4), 312–323. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027942

Prasetawati, E., & Asnawi, H. S. (2018). Wawasan Islam Nusantara; Pribumisasi Nilai-Nilai Kearifan Lokal di Indonesia. FIKRI : Jurnal Kajian Agama, Sosial Dan Budaya, 3(1), 219. https://doi.org/10.25217/jf.v3i1.283

Prasojo, Z. H., Elmansyah, & bin Haji Masri, M. S. (2019). Moderate Islam and the social construction of multi-ethnic communities in the hinterland of west Kalimantan. Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, 9(2), 217–239. https://doi.org/10.18326/IJIMS.V9I2.217-240

Pujiastuti, T. (2016). Perkembangan Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqshabandiyyah Di Pesantren Suryalaya. EL-AFKAR : Jurnal Pemikiran Keislaman Dan Tafsir Hadis, 5(2), 71–82.

Qodir, Z. (2013). The Politics Of Multiculturalism Of The Towani Tolotang Minority In South Sulawesi. Al-Albab, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v2i1.19

Rahim, A. (2020). Ritual of Maudu Lompoa in south Sulawesi Indonesia: An islamic economy perspective. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(6), 1723–1731. https://doi.org/10.37200/IJPR/V24I6/PR260166

Rizkiawan, I. (2017). Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Persepsi Masyarakat Tentang Makna Sesajen Pada Upacara Bersih Desa. Boga, 5(2), 11–17.

Roibin, R. (2012). Agama Dan Budaya-Relasi Konfrontatif Atau Kompromistik. JURISDICTIE. https://doi.org/10.18860/j.v0i0.1590

Rozi, S. (2013). Konstruksi Identitas Agama Dan Budaya Etnis Minangkabau Di Daerah Perbatasan: Perubahan Identitas Dalam Interaksi Antaretnis Di Rao Kabupaten Pasaman Sumatera Barat. In Jurnal Masyarakat Indonesia (Vol. 39, Issue 1).

Rusdi, A., Aryanto Wicaksono, K., Ardiyantara, N., Aprilianto Saputro, T., Peduk, A., & Ramadhani, K. (2018). Sedekah sebagai prediktor kebahagiaan. Jurnal Psikologi Islam, 5(1), 59–68.

Rusli, M. (2012). Kearifan Lokal Masyarakat Towani Tolotang Di Kabupaten Sindenren Rappang. Al-Ulum, 12(2), 477–496.

Sahrudin. (2017). Peran Konsep Diri, Religiusitas, Dan Pola Asuh Islami Terhadap Kecenderungan Perilaku Nakal Remaja Di Cirebon. Jurnal Ilmiah Indonesia, 2(1), 50–62.

Sakirman, S. (2016). Islam Aboge Dalam Tradisi Jawa Alastua. IBDA` : Jurnal Kajian Islam Dan Budaya, 14(2), 172–187. https://doi.org/10.24090/ibda.v14i2.702

Sani, A. (2017). Perempuan dan Tradisi Ziarah Makam. Siddhayatra: Jurnal Arkeologi, 20(2), 102–112. https://doi.org/10.24832/SIDDHAYATRA.V20I2.82

Saputro, A. D., & Rois, A. K. (2016). Implementasi Aktifitas Sosial Humaniora Dan Keagamaan Dalam Masyarakat. ARISTO, 4(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.24269/ars.v4i1.176

Sidqi, A. (2015). Wajah Tasawuf Di Era Modern: Antara Tantangan dan Jawaban. Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.21274/epis.2015.10.1.1-28

Sirajuddin. (2016). Konsep Pemikiran Al Ghazali. LAA MAISYIR, 3(1), 46–60.

Solihah, R. S. (2019). Agama dan Budaya. Al-Mada: Jurnal Agama, Sosial, Dan Budaya, 2(1), 77–94. https://doi.org/10.31538/almada.v2i1.343

Sriyanto, A. (2016). Akulturasi Islam Dengan Budaya Lokal. KOMUNIKA: Jurnal Dakwah Dan Komunikasi, 1(1), 149–163. https://doi.org/10.24090/komunika.v1i1.786

Sudarmaji, A. K. (2018). Tarekat Naqsyabandiyah Khalidiyah Dan Eksistensinya Di Plosokuning Tahun 1954-1995. Ilmu Sejarah - S1, 3(2).

Sujati, B. (2020). Tradisi Budaya Masyarakat Islam di Tatar Sunda (Jawa Barat). Ishlah: Jurnal Ilmu Ushuluddin, Adab Dan Dakwah, 1(1), 37–51. https://doi.org/10.32939/ishlah.v1i1.29

Sulthoni, M., Muhlisin, M., & Mutho’in, M. (2013). Haji Dan Kegairahan Ekonomi:Menguak Makna Ibadah Haji Bagi Pedagang Muslim di Yogyakarta. JURNAL PENELITIAN, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.28918/jupe.v9i1.130

Syuhudi, M. I. (2019). Ritual Berangkat Haji Masyarakat Muslim Gorontalo. Al-Qalam, 25(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.31969/alq.v25i1.726

Tule, P. (2014). Religious Conflicts and a Culture of Tolerance: Paving the Way for Reconciliation in Indonesia. Antropologi Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.7454/ai.v0i63.3404

Vikstrand, P. (2016). Place Names and Viking Age Religion. Names and Their Environment. Proceedings of the 25th International Congress of Onomastic Sciences, Glasgow, 25-29 August 2014. Vol. 2. Toponomastics II. Carole Hough and Daria Izdebska (Eds.), 177–184.

Wekke, I. S. (2013). Islam Dan Adat : Tinjauan Akulturasi Budaya Dan Agama dalam Masyarakat Bugis. Analisis.

Yamin, N. Y., Mapparessa, N., & Rahma, F. (2019). The Construction Meanings of Costs in Maudu Lompoa Rituals. https://doi.org/10.2991/iccd-19.2019.177

Zikri, K. (2011). Deconstructing Animal Sacrifice (Qurban) In Idul Adha. EsENSIA: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin, 12(2), 235. https://doi.org/10.14421/esensia.v12i2.711

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 309 PDF views: 117