RELIGIOUS DEMOCRATIZATION IN INDONESIA: STRENGTHENING THE PRO-CEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIAL RELIGIOUS DEMOCRACY

Eka Hendry AR.

Abstract

Inspired by the book of Michael Mann about the dark side of democracy that discusses the paradox between the ideality of democratic values and empirical realities of violence in the name of freedom (democracy), this paper begins with the exposure of the paradox, such as the rise of the violent conflict between groups of people (both ethnic and religious-based) and the high prevalence of violence between religious groups in Indonesia. Even worse, a very wrenching violence involves state actors (rulers). This paper tries to understand the roots of the paradox, with a look at how the relationship between state and religion and the religious community trend of Indonesia (especially Muslims). The author argues that the democratization of religion is a solution to the issues. To answer what kind of religious democracy lives in Indonesia, the author analyzes through a religious procedural (or constitutional) democratic dimension and religious substantial democratic dimension. The phenomenon of disobedience of law and system and the euphoria of law-making that reflects “intolerance” in several places in Indonesia display the fundamental issue in the religious procedural democracy. Whereas in the context of religious substantial democracy, the prevailing trend of religion that serves as a political and economic vehicle and ignores religion as a substantial aspect of the behavior of the Indonesian society has resulted in the marginalization of religious position and function. Then, the infiltration of the model of political Islam has also led to alienation of the character of the Islamic society of Indonesia, from a democratic pattern to a revival (radical) one. In this light, the author needs to present a strategy to encourage religious democracy in Indonesia, structurally through formulating the ideal relation model between state and religion and culturally through a substantial pattern of religion embedded with the character of Indonesian religious communities as well as the need to revitalize the true Indonesian Islamic model which will be intrinsically familiar with the principles of democracy.

Key words: Democracy, religious procedural, substantial democracy, intole­rance, law and system of disobedience.

Full Text:

PDF

References

An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. 2007. Islam dan Negara Sekuler : Menegosiasikan Masa Depan Syari’ah). Mizan. Bandung.

Arif, Abd. Salam. 2004. Politik Islam antara Aqidah dan Kekuasaan Negara (dalam A. Maftuh Abegebriel dkk.). 2004. Negara Tuhan : The Thematic Encyclopedia. SR-Ins Publishing. Yogyakarta.

Alkaf, Halid. 2011. Quo Vadis Liberalisme Islam Indonesia. Kompas. Jakarta.

Effendi, Tadjuddin Noer. 1996. Demokrasi dalam Persfektif Budaya Batak. Dalam Mohammed Najib dkk. 1996. Demokrasi Dalam Persfektif Budaya Nusantara. LKPSM. Yogyakarta.

Hasani, Ismail dan Bonar Tigor Naipospos (ed). 2011. Negara Menyangkat, Kondisi Kebebasan Beragama/Berkeyakinan di Indonesia 2010. Pustaka Masyarakat Setara. Jakarta.

________. 2011. Mengatur Kehidupan Beragama; Menjamin Kebebasan ? (Urgensi Kebutuhan RUU Jaminan Kebebasan Beragama/Berkeyakinan). Pustaka Masyarakat Setara. Jakarta.

Horowitz, Donald L., Demokrasi Pada Masyarakat Majemuk. Dalam: Larry Diamond dan Marc F. Plattner (ed), 1998, Nasionalisme, Konflik Etnik, dan Demokrasi (Terjemahan), Penerbit ITB, Bandung.

Hendry Ar, Eka. 2009. Sosiologi Konflik. STAIN Press didukung oleh Caireu STAIN Pontianak, WMC Semarang dan NUFFIC Belanda. Pontianak.

Hendry Ar, Eka (at all). 2013. Peran Forum Kerukunan Ummat Beragama (FKUB) Dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa Pendirian Rumah Ibadah (Studi Terhadap FKUB Kota Pontianak). Laporan Penelitian Kompetitif STAIN Pontianak Tahun 2012. (Tidak diterbitkan). STAIN Pontianak.

Mann, Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy (Explaining Ethnic Cleansing). Cambridge University Press. Los Angeles (USA).

Mudzakir, Amin. Minoritasisasi Ahamdiyah di Indonesia. 2001. Jurnal Masyarakat Indonesia Majalah Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial Indonesia. Edisi xxxvii. No. 2. 2011. LIPI. Jakarta.

Nasution, Adnan Buyung. 2011. Demokrasi Konstitusional. Kompas Gramedia. Jakarta.

Runciman, David. 2012. Politik Muka Dua : Topeng Kekuasaan Dari Hobbes hingga Orwell. Pustaka Pelajar. Yogyakarta.

Susan, Novri. 2012. Negara Gagal Mengelola Konflik: Demokrasi dan Tata Kelola Konflik di Indonesia. Kopi dan Pustaka Pelajar. Yogyakarta.

The Wahid Institute. 2012. Ringkasan Eksekutif Laporan Akhir Tahun Kebebasan Beragama dan Intoleransi.

The Setara Institute. 2012. Presiden Tanpa Prakarsa (Kondisi Kebebasan Beragama/Berkeyakinan di Indonesia, 17 Desember 2012)

Internet

Abdel Salam, El Fatih A.,. Kerangka Teoritis Penyelesaian Konflik. Diakses dari: http://www.scripps.ohiou.edu (selasa, 21 okt 2008).

Hutomo, Nandro. 2010. Demokrasi Prosedural dalam Polemik Keistimewaan DIY 2010. http://iesdepedia.com/blog/2013/01/15/demokrasi-prosedural-teori-2/. (Selasa, 15 Mei 2013

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 321 PDF views: 226