CONTESTING THE MEANINGS OF DISASTER: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY ON YOGYAKARTA PEOPLE’S RESPONSES TO THE MAY 27, 2006 EARTHQUAKE

Mohammad Hasan Basri

Abstract

Secara geografis, Indonesia merupakan negara yang sangat berpotensi atau rawan terjadi bencana baik berupa bencana alam (natural disaster) maupun bencana akibat ulah kelalaian manusia (man-made disaster). Namun sayang sekali, para akademisi dan para peneliti masih sedikit yang tertarik untuk lebih jauh mengkaji bencana utamanya dalam perpektif ilmu-ilmu sosial. Sebagai salah satu upaya memulai kajian bencana di negeri ini, thesis ini diharapkan menjadi titik awal pengembangan ilmu-ilmu sosial dalam kajian bencana. Paper ini menyimpulkan bahwa proses kontestasi pemaknaan masyarakat dalam merespon bencana gempa dipengaruhi oleh tiga aspek, yaitu agama (religious meaning), Budaya Jawa (Javanese meaning), dan penjelasan sains (scientific meaning). Walaupun ketiga aspek tersebut saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain, berdasarkan respon masyarakat Wonokromo, aspek agama sangat mendominasi pikiran mereka. Ada empat variasi pemaknaan yang didasarkan pada aspek agama, yakni bencana sebagai hukuman, cobaan, tes, dan surat cinta dari Tuhan. Respon ini secara implisit masih problematis terutama jika dikaitkan dengan masalah theodicy (problem of evil) di dalam teologi dan proses pemulihan bencana karena pandangan seperti ini cenderung memojokkan korban (blaming the victims).

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