TURTLENECK HITAM DAN FEMALE-MASCULINITY: Analisis Presentasi Diri Elizabeth Holmes dalam Skandal “Theranos” di Amerika Serikat tahun 2019

Latifa Ramonita, M. IKom.

Abstract


The breakthrough in high technology carried out by young people seems to be the motor of Elizabeth Holmes to establish a biotech company "Theranos" at the age of 19 and decided to leave Standford University. With the ability to present herself and her courage to take risks, Holmes became the figure of hope and positioned by the media as "The Next Steve Jobs". Holmes claims that she can make a product that is capable of detecting a variety of diseases only from a drop of blood, different from the current method that uses blood vials and a long time to process. Unfortunately, everything tumbled after its superior product, Edison, was declared a failure by the FDA. The formulation of the problem in this study is how Holmes made her presentation in the midst of a very masculine industry. This study uses interpretive qualitative analysis using the dramaturgy approach of Geoffman as well as Leary-Kowalski, analyzing the self presentation of Holmes, including the use of black turtlenecks, heavy voices, and masculine behavior, as well as the way to look at others deeply, to it is mentioned that Holmes rarely blinks. The content analyzed in this study was through a documentary film, entitled "The Inventor: Out of Blood of Silicon Valley" as well as many video contents from Youtube and other documentation. The conclusion that can be taken from this analysis is that Holmes was keen to set up her presentation strategy as a female-masculine leader, to strengthen her position in Silicon Valley as Theranos' initiator, until she managed to get up to billions of dollars in funding from many top investors, and personal appreciation from the Presidents.

[Terobosan dalam teknologi tinggi yang dilakukan oleh anak-anak muda agaknya menjadi motor Elizabeth Holmes untuk mendirikan perusahaan bioteknologi “Theranos” di usia 19 tahun dan memutuskan untuk keluar dari Standford University. Dengan kemampuan presentasi diri dan keberaniannya mengambil risiko, Holmes menjadi sosok yang digadang-gadang menjadi “The Next Steve Jobs”.Hampir semua ciri khas Jobs ditiru oleh Holmes, dengan dalih dirinya mengidolakan tokoh pendiri Apple tersebut.Holmes mengklaim bahwa dirinya bisa membuat sebuah produk yang mampu mendeteksi beragam penyakit hanya dari setetes darah, berbeda dengan metode saat ini yang menggunakan bervial-vial darah dan waktu lama untuk mendeteksi penyakit.Sayangnya, semua berubah setelah produk unggulannya, Edison, dinyatakan gagal oleh FDA.Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah bagaimana Holmes melakukan presentasi diri di tengah industri teknologi dan bioteknologi yang sangat maskulin.Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis kualitatif interpretif dengan menggunakan pendekatan dramaturgi Geoffman dan Leary-Kowalski, menganalisis presentasi diri dari Holmes yang fenomenal, di antaranya penggunaan turtleneck hitam di setiap waktu, bersuara berat, dan berperilaku maskulin, juga caranya menatap orang lain dalam-dalam, hingga disebutkan bahwa Holmes jarang mengedipkan mata. Konten yang dianalisis adalah melalui tayangan film dokumenter produksi HBO, yang berjudul “The Inventor: Out of Blood of Silicon Valley” juga konten video dari Youtube dan dokumentasi lainnya. Kesimpulan yang bisa diambil dalam analisis ini adalah bahwa Holmes memang jeli mengatur strategi presentasi dirinya sebagai pemimpin yang female-masculine, untuk memperkuat posisinya di Silicon Valley sebagai penggagas Theranos, hingga berhasil mendapat sokongan dana hingga milyaran dollar dari banyak investor papan atas hingga apresiasi dari Presiden Amerika Serikat].

Keywords


Silicon Valley; Elizabeth Holmes; Theranos; biotechnology; entrepreneur; blood test

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abelson, R. (2018). “Theranos founder Elizabeth Holmes indicted on fraud charges”. Diperoleh dari https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/15/health/theranos-elizabeth-holmes-fraud.html pada tanggal 23 Maret 2019.

Bachorowski, J. (1999). Vocal expression and perception of emotion. Journal of American Physchological Society, 8(2), 53-57. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8721.00013

Bloem, C. (2018). “Why successful people wear the same thing every day”. Diperoleh dari https://www.inc.com/craig-bloem/this-1-unusual-habit-helped-make-mark-zuckerberg-steve-jobs-dr-dre-successful.html pada tanggal 24 Maret 2019.

Carreyrou, J. (2018). “Blood-testing firm Theranos to dissolve”. Diperoleh dari https://www.wsj.com/articles/blood-testing-firm-theranos-to-dissolve-1536115130 pada tanggal 23 Maret 2019.

Dasgupta, P. B. (2017). Detection and analysis of human emotions through voice and speech pattern processing. International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology, 52(1), 1-3. ISSN: 2231-2803.

Foussianes, C. (2019). “Elizabeth Holmes faces criminal charges, but she insists she's not guilty”. Diperoleh dari https://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/money-and- power/a26857277/elizabeth-holmes-today/ pada tanggal 23 Maret 2019.

Gibney, A., Deeter, J., Edeiken, E. (Produser), & Gibney, A. (Sutradara). (2019). The inventor: Out of blood in Silicon Valley [Film]. Amerika Serikat: HBO Documentary Films & Jigsaw Production.

Geoffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Inggris: University of Edinburgh.

Heaney, K. (2019). “What kind of person fakes their voice?”. Diperoleh dari https://www.thecut.com/2019/03/why-did-elizabeth-holmes-use-a-fake-deep-voice.html pada tanggal 22 Maret 2019.

Jones, E. E., & Pittman, T. S. (1982). Toward a general theory of strategic self-presentation. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two-component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(1), 34-47. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.1.34.

Milestone, K., Meyer, A. (2012). Gender and popular culture. Inggris: Cambridge. Polity Press. Mazeikiene, A., Peleckiene, V., Peleckis, K. (2010). The main factors determining the choice of self-presentation strategies in negotiations and business meetings. Journal of Business: Theory and Practice, 11(4), 353-361. DOI: 10.3846/btp.2010.38.

Pisanski, K., Oleszkiewicz, A., Plachetka, J., Gmiterek, M., & Reby, D. (2018). Voice pitch modulation in human mate. Proc. R. Soc. B 285: 20181634. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1634

Ryan, L. (2019). “The most bizarre moments from the Elizabeth Holmes documentary”. Diperoleh dari https://www.thecut.com/2019/03/the-most-bizarre-moments-from-the-theranos-documentary.html pada tanggal 22 Maret 2019.

Ryan, L. (2019). “What does it mean that Elizabeth Holmes doesn’t

blink?”. Diperoleh dari https://www.thecut.com/2019/03/why-doesnt-elizabeth-holmes-blink-theranos.html pada tanggal 22 Maret 2019.

Valdez, P., Mehrabian, A. (1994). Effects of color on emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(4), 394-409. DOI: 10.1037/0096-3445.123.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24260/raheema.v6i1.1326

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 142 times
PDF - 20 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Site Stats Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.