The Dayak Selako Shamans Oral Tradition: Intermediary Between People, Culture And Religion

Kristianus Kristianus

Abstract

The Dayak Shamans of Western Kalimantan of Borneo mediate between people and the Makhluk halus or invisible beings. The Makhluk halus who have their own well-defined roles, live in the sky, earth, water and other places, with similar needs as the humans, and the relations between humans and spirits in the context of traditional beliefs are inseparable. Interestingly, these beliefs are common to both Dayak Selako Shamanism and Kalimantan Islam. The Malay oral tradition has a major influence on the Dayak Selako culture in Western Kalimantan. In fact, both ethnic groups had originated historically from the same roots, but later separated by Islam and Christianity. Thus, irrespective of their affiliations to the major religions of Christianity and Islam, the Dayak Selako Shamanism and the Islamic spiritual healing practiced in Western Kalimantan follow the same oral tradition when conducting spiritual communication and shamanic healing.  For the Malays, communication with the spiritual world begins with the recital of the Islamic verses, forming an essential part of the the Malay identity. Interestingly, the Dayak Selako Christians too use the same verses. We argue that the Dayak Selako Shaman is not only an intermediary between the Dayaks and their spirits,  but also between the Dayak, Islam and Christianit religions. The mutual values of oral tradition in shamanism’s of the Dayak Selako and Malays have created a societal structure based on the natural cycle and life pattern.

Keywords

Shamans Oral tradition; The Dayak Selako; Malay; Dayak Culture

Full Text:

PDF

References

Baier, M. (2007). The development of the Hindu Kaharingan religion: A new Dayak Religion in central Kalimantan. Anthropos. https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2007-2-566

Chua, L. (2011). Soul encounters: Emotions, corporeality, and the matter of belief in a bornean village. Social Analysis. https://doi.org/10.3167/sa.2011.550301

Chua, L. (2015). Horizontal and vertical relations: Interrogating “in/dividualism” among Christian Bidayuhs. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory. https://doi.org/10.14318/hau5.1.016

Darmadi, H. (2018). Educational Management Based on Local Wisdom. Journal of Education, Teaching and Learning, Vol. 134. No.3. p:123-131.

Effendi, C. (2009). Oral tradition and identity of west kalimantan society. Sari (ATMA), 27, 3–12. http://myais.fsktm.um.edu.my/10020/

Hermansyah, H. (2014a). ISLAM AND LOCAL CULTURE IN INDONESIA. Al-Albab. https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v3i1.94

Hermansyah, H. (2014b). Islam dan Toleransi Beragama dalam Masyarakat Muslim Kanayatn Dayak di Kalimantan Barat. ISLAMICA: Jurnal Studi Keislaman. https://doi.org/10.15642/islamica.2013.7.2.340-359

IDRIS, F., MUDA, K., & MASTOR, K. A. (2019). Pembentukan Model Toleransi Beragama Belia Pelbagai Etnik di Malaysia. The Development of Religious Tolerance Model Among Multiethnic Youth in Malaysia.

Irawati, E. (2019). Transmission of kêlèntangan music among the Dayak Bênuaq of East Kalimantan in Indonesia. Malaysian Journal of Music. https://doi.org/10.37134/mjm.vol8.7.2019

Iyon, F. (2018). Leksikon Amaik Dalam Ritual Naah Padi Pada Masyarakat Dayak Salako Di Kecamatan Sajingan Besar Sambas. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa.

KBBI. (2016). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia ( KBBI ). In Kementerian Pendidikan dan Budaya.

Koentjaraningrat. (2010). “Manusia dan Kebudayaan Di Indonesia.” In Djambatan.

Kristianus. (2011). Nasionalisme etnik di kalimantan barat. Jurnal Masayarakat Indonesia.

Kristianus, A. (2017). Dialektika Budaya Dayak: Inkulturasi Agama Katolik dengan Budaya Dayak Kayaan. An1mage Jurnal Studi Kultural. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5212255

Kristianus, K. (2017). The Development of Multicultural Education Model in West Kalimantan. JETL (Journal Of Education, Teaching and Learning). https://doi.org/10.26737/jetl.v2i1.144

Kristianus, K., Magdalena, M., & Lala, C. (2018). Cultural Dialectics With Catholic Education in The Border Areas in Sanggau Regency, West Kalimantan. IJECA (International Journal of Education and Curriculum Application). https://doi.org/10.31764/ijeca.v1i3.2131

Lathifah, A. (2018). Turun Melayu: Konstruksi Identitas Orang Dayak Muslim di Desa Kuala Rosan Kalimantan Barat. Endogami: Jurnal Ilmiah Kajian Antropologi. https://doi.org/10.14710/endogami.2.1.80-87

Luardini, M. A. (2016). Socio-Cultural Values of Traditional Communities: A Case Study of the Dayak in Kalimantan. Asian Culture and History, 8(2), 1. https://doi.org/10.5539/ach.v8n2p1

Marzali, A. (2014). Pergeseran Orientasi Nilai Kultural dan Keagamaan di Indonesia (Sebuah Esai dalam Rangka Mengenang Almarhum Prof. Koentjaraningrat). Antropologi Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.7454/ai.v0i57.3342

Msiska, M.-H., Hyland, P., & Law, R. (2018). Oral tradition as history. In Writing and Africa. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315505176-10

Noor, Y. (2013). ISLAMISASI BANJARMASIN (ABAD XV-XIX). Jurnal Socius. https://doi.org/10.20527/jurnalsocius.v2i1.2199

Prasojo, Z. H. (2011). Indigenous community identity within muslim societies in Indonesia: A study of Katab Kebahan Dayak in West Borneo. In Journal of Islamic Studies. https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/etq068

Pratama, R. B., & Nurcahyo, A. (2019). Kajian Sosioreligi Nilai-Nilai Upacara Aruh Baharin Dalam Masyarakat Dayak Meratus Halong Kabupaten Balangan Sebagai Sumber Pembelajaran Nilai Berbasis Multikultural. AGASTYA: JURNAL SEJARAH DAN PEMBELAJARANNYA. https://doi.org/10.25273/ajsp.v9i1.3640

Shils, E. (1971). Tradition. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 122–159. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500006186

Sutama, P., Luardini, M. A. & . N. A. (2020). The Religious Text ‘Panaturan’ of the Dayak Ngaju Community. KnE Social Sciences. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v4i4.6489

Thomson, L. K. (2000). The effect of the Dayak worldview, customs, traditions, and customary law (adat-istiadat) on the interpretation of the Gospel in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. https://doi.org/10.16953/deusbed.74839

Zahorka, H. (2020). Animism is Applied Ethnobotany: A Shamanic Healing Ritual with the Dayak Benuaq Ohookng / East Kalimantan. Journal of Tropical Ethnobiology. https://doi.org/10.46359/jte.v3i1.8

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 211 PDF views: 71