The Existence of Kaharingan Within Dayak Identity in West Kalimantan

Moch Riza Fahmi, Asep Muhyiddin

Abstract

Identity is a fluid and adaptive phenomenon that suits the needs of its users. Identity is often used as a tool by certain groups for certain purposes, for example as a form of resistance or as a means to show the existence of a group. In West Kalimantan, the Kaharingan religion reveals its existence in the Dayak identity. This paper aims to explore the existence of the Kaharingan religion in the Dayak community in West Kalimantan, especially when there is a rift between ethnic groups. The rifts between ethnic groups in West Kalimantan are commonly referred to as social conflicts that occurred around the 1990s. This paper was based on literature research data using historical and phenomenological approaches. The historical approach was used to describe the history of the Dayak ethnicity, the Kaharingan religion and the history of social conflicts between 1997 and 1999 in West Kalimantan, while the phenomenological approach is used to analyze the phenomenon of the existence of the Kaharingan religion when social conflicts occurred. The results showed that the existence of the Kaharingan religion was on the rise during the 1997-1999 social conflicts among the Dayaks. The emergence of the Kaharingan religion could be seen in the rituals, such as the Nyaru Tariu, Mangkok Merah, and Tiwah ceremonies. Despite the fact that some of the Dayaks at that time were already Catholics and Protestants, they performed the rituals of the Kaharingan religion. After the 1997-1999 social conflicts, the Kaharingan Religion was institutionally declared on May 16, 2019 in Bengkayang Regency under the name of the Indonesian Kaharingan Religious Council (MAKI) West Kalimantan.

Keywords

Existence; Kaharingan; Dayak Identity, West Kalimantan

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adyanta, D. (ed.). (2011). Budaya Dayak: Permasalahan dan Alternatifnya. Malang: Bayumedia.

Aritonang, J. S. (2006). Sejarah Pejumpaan Kristen dan Islam di Indonesia, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia.

Banawiratma, J.B. & Muller, J. (1995). Berteologi Sosial Lintas Ilmu: Kemiskinan Sebagai Tantangan Hidup Beriman. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Cahyono, H. at.al. (ed.). (2008). Konflik Kalbar dan Kalteng: Jalan Panjang Meretas Perdamaian. Jakarta-Yogyakarta: P2P-LIPI and Pustaka Pelajar.

Darmadi, H. (2016). Dayak dan Asal Usul Penyebarannya di Bumi Borneo. Jurnal Pendidikan Sosial. Vol 3. Dec.

Dharmawan & Arya, H. (2007). Konflik Sosial dan Resolusi Konflik, Analisis Sosio-Budaya dengan Fokus Perhatian Kalimantan Barat. Unpublished Paper presented at Semiloka Nasional in Pontianak 10-11 January 2007.

Dewi, M. D. (2018). Agama dan kebudayaan Kaharingan di Kalimantan Menurut Para Penulis Indonesia (1990-2003). Unpublished mini thesis. Fakulty of Ushuluddin UIN Jakarta.

Hadiwijono, H. (2003). Religi Suku Murba di Indonesia. Jakarta: Gunung Mulia.

Hannerz, U. (1992). Cultural Complexity: Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hanifi, M. L. (2016). Ritual Perang Dalam Suku Dayak. Jurnal Sabda. Vol 11, No 2 December.

Holland, J. & Henriot, P. (1994). Analisis Sosial dan Refleksi Teologis:Kaitan Iman dan Keadilan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Humaydi, M. A. (2007). Analisis Stratifikasi Sosial Sebagai Sumber Konflik. Jurnal Karsa. Vol. XII. No. 2.

Lewis, A. C. (1986). The Functions of Social Conflict (Glence, I 11: Free Press, 1956) as quoted in Doyle Paul Johnson Teori Sosiologi Klasik dan Modern 2, translation of Robert M.Z. Lawang, (Gremedia, Jakarta).

Mahin, M. (2009). Kaharingan; Dinamika Agama Dayak di Kalimantan Tengah. Unpublished Disertation. Facultu of Social Science University of Indonesia.

Marjanto, D. K. (2011). Kaharingan: Perjuangan Masyarakat Adat Dayak Ngaju di Kab Kotawaringin, Dahulu dan Sekarang. Book of Kearifan Lokal di Tengah modernisasi, P3K Kementrian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata RI.

Mas’oed, M. (ed.). (2000). Kekerasan dan Konflik: Kondisi dan Pemicu. Yogyakarta: Pusat Penelitian Pembangunan Pedesaan dan Kawasan UGM.

Maunati, Y. (2004). Identitas Dayak: Komodifikasi dan Politik Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: LkiS.

Nitiprawiro, F. W. (2008). Teologi Pembebasan: Sejarah, Metode, Praksis, dan Isinya. Yogyakarta: LkiS.

Putra, R. M. S. (2012). Makna di Balik Teks Dayak Sebagai Etnis Headhunter. Journal Communication Spectrum. 1.2.

Prasojo, Z. H. (2012). Penguatan Identitas Dayak Muslim Katab Kabahan. Jurnal al-Ulum. Vol. 12. No. 2.

Riwut, T. (1993). Kalimantan Membangun Alam dan Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana.

______. (2003). Manaser Panatau Tatu Hiang: Menyelami Kekayaan Leluhur. Palangka Raya: Pusakalima.

Sa’dun, M. (ed.). (1999). Pri-Non Pri: Mencari Format Baru Pembauran. Jakarta: CIDES.

Salim, H. (ed.). (1996). Kisah dari Kampung Halaman: Masyarakat Suku,Agama Resmi, dan Pembangunan. Yogyakarta: Dian/Interfidei.

Sinaga, M. L. (2004). Identitas Poskolonial “Gereja Suku” Dalam Masyarakat Sipil: Studi Tentang Jaulung Wismar Saragih dan Komunitas Kristen Simalungun. Yogyakarta: LkiS.

Simon, J. C. (2013). Konflik dan Dilema Gereja Suku ; Mengurai Relasi Agama, Etnisitas dan Budaya Dalam Konflik Sosial di Kalimantan Sebagai Upaya Gereja Menemukan Kembali Rasa Asia. Jurnal Gema Teologi. Vol. 37. No. 2. October.

Steenbrink, K. A. (2003). Catholics in Indonesia, 1808-1942: A modest recovery 1808-1903. KITLV Press.

Ukur, F. (2000). Tuaiannya sungguh banyak: sejarah Gereja Kalimantan Evanggelis sejak tahun 1835. BPK Gunung Mulia.

Internet Sources

Kristianus. (2020). Mengenal Agama Kaharingan dichanel kristanus atok TV www.Youtube.com. Accessed on 01 July 2020.

Border TV Bengkayang, Accessed at www.youtube.com on 01 July 2020.

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 216 PDF views: 225